The mechanical foundation - the "skeleton" - of Festo's Airic's_arm is literally a metal version of the human skeletal structure. The radius and ulna (primary bones of the forearm), the metacarpals (hand and fingers) and the shoulder and shoulder blade are duplicated.
(Airic's_arm in action - video)
The musculature of the Festo Airic's_arm is comprised of Festo's "Fluidic Muscle," a pneumatic actuator of a type similar to those first demonstrated in the 1950's. Festo claims that their fluidic muscle design offers quicker repetition and high acceleration of mechanical parts, combined with a better power to weight ratio.
Festo's Airic's_arm is a pretty good fit for a specialized robotic arm from the 1958 Harry Harrison story Simulated Trainer:
He watched the panel slip back in the wall next to him and the hypo arm slide through, moving erratically like a snake as its metal fingers sought him out...
(Read more about Harry Harrison's hypo robotic arm)
Update 19-Oct-2011: Martin Caidin specifically uses this term in his 1972 novel Cyborg, which was the basis for the film Six Million Dollar Man; see the entry for artificial muscles. End update.
Try utilizing your own skeletal structure and "meat muscles:" click on one of these links to learn about other robotic arm research: