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"It was my preferred entertainment when I was a kid, so when I set out to be a writer, it was perfectly natural that I should write the sort of stories that I used to enjoy reading."
- John Brunner

Artificial Muscles  
  Replacement for organic muscle tissue.  

This is a very early use of this term; as far as I know, the earliest mentions of this phrase occur in engineering literature no earlier than 1972.

The artificial muscles.. which in this case are silastic and vitallium pulleys, then contract, twist, and tighten.

Your arm should have on the order of ten times the gripping and handling strength you once had.

Technovelgy from Cyborg, by Martin Caidin.
Published by Random House in 1972
Additional resources -

Compare with the 'sham musculature' from HG Wells' 1898 novel The War of the Worlds and the Joeboy muscle grafts from Neuromancer (1984) by William Gibson.

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Additional resources:
  More Ideas and Technology from Cyborg
  More Ideas and Technology by Martin Caidin
  Tech news articles related to Cyborg
  Tech news articles related to works by Martin Caidin

Artificial Muscles-related news articles:
  - Methanol-Powered Robot Muscles - Bend It Like Bender
  - Fuel Powered Muscles For Robots
  - Artificial Muscles Power A Motor
  - Artificial Muscles Made From Carbon Nanotube Yarn
  - 3D Printed Artificial Muscles Are Stronger Than Yours
  - Soft Filaments Form Artificial Muscles

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